What is Bamboo fabric – Step-by-step guide to Bamboo fabric

0
859
Bamboo fabric guide

Bamboo fabric is a textile fabric made from the cellulose fibers extracted from bamboo plants. Bamboo fabric is known for high breathability and moisture wicking capabilities while remaining soft and gentle on the skin making it an ideal choice for sustainable clothing, particularly underwear.

Fabric name Bamboo Fabric
CompositionLuxurious Comfort: 60% organic bamboo for unparalleled softness and drape, 40% Tencel™ lyocell for breathable strength and eco-conscious touch.
Activewear Allure: 55% moisture-wicking bamboo, 35% recycled polyester for quick-drying performance, 10% elastane for freedom of movement.
Sustainable Serenity: 70% bamboo rayon for natural breathability and gentle on skin, 30% organic cotton for added structure and eco-friendly flair.
Silky Sensation: 80% bamboo linen blend for a cool, crisp touch and wrinkle resistance, 20% mulberry silk for ultimate luxury and drape.
Cozy Cashmere: 45% bamboo fibers for lightweight warmth, 45% organic wool for natural insulation, 10% cashmere for a hint of indulgent softness.
Possible Thread Count VariationsAiry Embrace: 150-200 threads per inch – Breathable sheets for summer nights or lightweight garments that flow with ease.
Everyday Comfort: 200-300 threads per inch – Versatile choice for sheets, towels, and apparel, balancing softness with durability.
Luxurious Serenity: 300-400 threads per inch – Indulge in supreme softness with bedding or garments that feel like a gentle caress.
Performance Perfection: 400-500 threads per inch – Ideal for high-stress areas like shirt collars and cuffs, or activewear demanding durability.
BreathabilityBreathable nature minimizes sweat build-up, preventing irritation and promoting fresh, healthy skin.
Moisture-wicking abilityBreathable fibers and superior absorption make bamboo the moisture-wicking champion, banishing sweat and delivering dry, happy days.
Heat Retention AbilityEscape the chill without bulky layers. Bamboo’s subtle heat retention provides breathable warmth, perfect for year-round enjoyment.
StretchabilityStretchy weaves retain their shape, minimizing the need for ironing, offering effortless style with every move.
Prone to pilling/bubbingChoose blends with longer fibers: Opt for blends with Tencel™ lyocell or other long-staple fibers to enhance pill resistance.
Select tightly woven fabrics: Opt for woven bamboo over knits for a more pill-resistant option.
Gentle care: Use gentle detergents and low wash temperatures to avoid damaging fibers.
Debubble regularly: Use a fabric shaver or other debubbling tool to remove pills as they appear.
Where was Bamboo first produced?Southern China
Largest producing countryChina
Recommended washing temperaturesGentle detergents: Avoid harsh chemicals that can weaken the fibers.
Skip the bleach: Chlorine bleach can damage bamboo fabric.
Air dry whenever possible: High heat from dryers can shrink or damage the fabric.
Avoid wringing or twisting: This can distort the shape and texture.
Common applications of bamboo fabricBedding: Bamboo sheets are incredibly soft and breathable, creating a comfortable and cool sleep environment.
Towels: Bamboo towels are highly absorbent and quick-drying, making them ideal for bathrooms and kitchens.
Blankets and throws: Bamboo’s softness and warmth make it perfect for cozy throws and blankets.
Rugs and carpets: Bamboo rugs are naturally soft, durable, and stain-resistant, making them a great choice for high-traffic areas.

What is Bamboo fabric

What is Bamboo fabric

Bamboo fabric is a notable sustainable textile due to its exceptional combination of comfort, environmental friendliness, and adaptability. This fabric, which comes from bamboo grass, is well-liked for its breathability, softness, and low environmental effect. Let’s take a closer look at the production of bamboo fabric, its uses in the marketplace, and the well-known companies that use this environmentally friendly material.

Embrace the soft caress of nature with bamboo fabric, a sustainable and luxurious alternative to traditional textiles. Beyond its eco-friendly charm, bamboo boasts remarkable properties that elevate your comfort and style. Dive into this guide and discover why bamboo fabric deserves a place in your wardrobe and beyond:

A Naturally Soft Sensation:

Cradled by bamboo fabric, you’ll experience a delightful softness surpassing even the finest cotton. Its smooth fibres, devoid of irritating chemicals, pamper your skin with every touch. Whether you’re lounging in pyjamas or conquering your workout, bamboo offers a gentle embrace that lingers throughout the day.

Breathe Easy, Stay Cool:

Bamboo fibres possess inherent breathability, allowing air to circulate freely and preventing uncomfortable heat buildup. Imagine staying cool and dry even on the most sweltering days, thanks to bamboo’s moisture-wicking prowess. It draws away sweat efficiently, keeping you feeling fresh and energized.

Hypoallergenic Haven:

Sensitive skin rejoices! Bamboo fabric’s natural antibacterial properties inhibit the growth of odour-causing bacteria, making it ideal for those prone to allergies or skin irritations. Its hypoallergenic charm provides a gentle oasis for even the most delicate skin.

Sustainable Soul:

Embrace a greener footprint with bamboo, a rapidly renewable resource that requires minimal water and fertilizers compared to cotton. Choosing bamboo means contributing to a healthier planet without compromising on comfort or style.

Durability Defined:

Don’t let its delicate touch fool you. Bamboo fabric is surprisingly robust, resisting wrinkles and wear and tear with admirable tenacity. Enjoy your garments for longer, minimizing waste and maximizing your investment in sustainaZble luxury.

Versatility Unbound:

From luxuriously soft bedding to breathable activewear, stylish dresses to cozy pyjamas, bamboo’s versatility knows no bounds. Experiment with its wide range of textures and weights to find the perfect fit for any occasion.

A Touch of Luxury:

Indulge in the subtle sheen and elegant drape of bamboo fabric. Its inherent lustre elevates every garment, adding a touch of sophistication to your everyday look. Embrace the natural allure of bamboo and redefine your definition of sustainable luxury.

How is the bamboo fabric made?

How is the bamboo fabric made

The silky and opulent texture of the bamboo fabric, which is made from the pulp of bamboo grass, is highly praised. This fabric has a composition that frequently includes bamboo viscose, giving it a special blend of moisture-wicking capabilities and breathability. Bamboo fabric has inherent antibacterial and hypoallergenic properties that make it ideal for a range of uses, from beds to clothes.

Applications:

  • Clothing: Bamboo fabric creates a wide range of clothing items, including shirts, dresses, underwear, and activewear.
  • Bedding: Bamboo bed sheets are popular for their softness and breathability.
  • Towels: Highly absorbent, bamboo towels are favoured for their luxurious feel.
  • Home Textiles: The fabric extends to various home textiles like curtains and upholstery.
Bamboo Fabric

Types of Bamboo Fabric:

  • Bamboo Viscose: Also known as bamboo rayon, it’s the most common type. It undergoes a process where bamboo cellulose is dissolved, extruded, and spun into fabrics. For more info, click here.
  • Bamboo Lyocell: Produced through a more eco-friendly process using a closed-loop system, bamboo lyocell is gaining popularity for its sustainability. For more info, click here.

Sustainability:

  • Rapid Growth: Bamboo is a fast-growing plant, requiring minimal water and no pesticides. Its rapid regrowth makes it a highly sustainable resource.
  • Low Environmental Impact: Bamboo cultivation has a lower environmental impact compared to traditional cotton farming, which often involves heavy pesticide use.

How is bamboo made into fabric?

The technique of turning bamboo fabrics into cloth during the manufacturing process is quite careful. After material selection and preparation, the bamboo is cleaned, spun, woven, and—most importantly—put through a specific brushing or napping treatment. Bamboo cloth has a soft and velvety feel since this approach brings out the texture of the fabric. The process involves several key stages:

Step 1: Harvesting Bamboo

The process begins with the harvest of bamboo, a fast-growing and renewable resource. Bamboo’s rapid regrowth and minimal environmental impact make it an ideal choice for sustainable fabric production

Step 2: Cutting and Sewing

Once the bamboo fabric is ready, it is cut into the desired pattern pieces for various products, such as clothing or home textiles. Skilled artisans then sew these pieces together to create the final products.

Step 3: Creating Bamboo Fiber

The extracted bamboo pulp is then transformed into bamboo fabrics. This can be achieved through various methods, with the most common being the viscose or rayon process. In this process, the bamboo cellulose is dissolved in a chemical solution, extruded, and solidified into fabrics.

Step 4: Eco-Friendly Considerations

In response to environmental concerns related to chemical processes, some manufacturers adopt eco-friendly practices. This includes closed-loop systems, where chemicals used in the manufacturing process are recycled, reducing the overall environmental impact.

Step 5: Finishing Touches

After the fabric is formed, it undergoes finishing processes to achieve the desired characteristics. This may include washing, dyeing, or any additional treatments to enhance colour, texture, or performance.

Step 6: Manufacturing

Chemical Process: The manufacturing of bamboo fabric involves a chemical process to extract cellulose from bamboo pulp. While this raises environmental concerns, efforts are made to adopt eco-friendly practices.

Closed-Loop Systems: Some manufacturers use closed-loop systems, recycling chemicals to minimize environmental impact.

Successful Brands Utilising Bamboo Fabric

Bamboo cloth is ecological and comfy, which is why many well-known manufacturers have started using it. The USA, which is renowned for its commitment to environmentally friendly methods, is home to several bamboo fabric manufacturers. A few Brands are listed below:

#1. Boody:

Boody is a sustainable clothing brand known for its bamboo-based essentials. They offer a range of comfortable and breathable bamboo underwear, loungewear, and activewear.

Boody

#2. Cariloha:

Cariloha specializes in bamboo-based products, including clothing, bedding, and bath goods. Their bamboo fabric is known for its softness and sustainable properties.

Cariloha Bamboo

#3. Panda:

Panda is a brand that focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable bamboo essentials. They offer a variety of bamboo-based products, including clothing, accessories, and home goods.

Panda Bamboo

#4. Thought Clothing:

Thought Clothing is a brand that emphasizes sustainable and natural fabrics, including bamboo. They offer a wide range of bamboo clothing, from tops to dresses, with a focus on ethical and eco-friendly practices.

Thought clothing bamboo

#5. Bamigo:

Bamigo specializes in bamboo-based men’s clothing, including underwear, socks, and loungewear. The brand is known for its dedication to creating comfortable and sustainable essentials for men.

Bamigo Bamboo

Using Iconic Products Made from Bamboo Fabric

Screenshot 2023 12 16 at 4.56.16 PM

Bamboo fabric has a significant impact on well-known items like cosy pyjamas, soft bed linens, and activewear that expertly blends fashion with sustainability. Bamboo fabric’s natural softness and qualities make it a popular material for warm, environmentally friendly fabrics.

Bamboo fabric’s rise in popularity has led to some truly innovative and iconic products. Here are a few standouts:

The All-Natural T-Shirt: Soft, breathable, and eco-conscious, bamboo t-shirts have become a staple in sustainable wardrobes. Brands like Tentree and Patagonia offer luxurious yet casual options that champion ethical sourcing and production.

The Cozy Bamboo Sheet Set: Picture sinking into a bed of pure softness with these naturally temperature-regulating sheets. Companies like Casper and Brooklinen have introduced luxurious bamboo sheet sets renowned for their unparalleled comfort and breathability.

The Adventure-Ready Travel Towel: Ditch the bulky bath towel! Bamboo’s fast-drying and antibacterial properties make it ideal for travel towels. Lightweight brands like Sea to Summit and Nomadic offer compact and absorbent options perfect for globetrotters.

The Sustainable Loungewear Set: Bamboo’s ultimate softness lends itself beautifully to cozy loungewear. Brands like Eberjey and Barefoot Dreams offer luxuriously soft and stylish sets that ooze relaxation and eco-consciousness.

The Activewear Revolution: Bamboo’s moisture-wicking and odor-resistant properties make it a game-changer in activewear. Brands like Vuori and Athleta offer high-performance leggings, sports bras, and tanks that keep you cool and comfortable during workouts.

Quality Control: Throughout the manufacturing process, rigorous quality control measures are implemented to ensure that the bamboo fabric meets high standards of durability, softness, and sustainability.

Final Inspection: The finished bamboo products undergo a final inspection to check for any defects or imperfections. This thorough quality check ensures that consumers receive bamboo fabric items of the highest quality.

Supplier Information and Location:

For those who would like to look into their possibilities, several companies offer bamboo fabric, which is a green option. The US is home to various bamboo fabric makers because of its emphasis on eco-friendly practices. Online platforms, manufacturer directories, and trade shows are helpful resources for connecting with suppliers. Below are a handful of them:

#1. Hula Global:

Hula Global is a well-known supplier of bamboo fabrics and is dedicated to offering premium, long-lasting materials. Hula Global sources bamboo from plantations that are carefully managed, emphasising environmentally acceptable practices. The business is well-known for bringing cutting-edge bamboo fabrics to the international market. Wanna get in touch with us. You can also Book a 1-on-1 Call Session BOOK NOW

#2. EcoBamboo:

EcoBamboo is an international supplier with a focus on goods made from bamboo, such as textiles. They are dedicated to encouraging the textile industry to use sustainable materials. EcoBamboo upholds a transparent supply chain and guarantees the traceability of its bamboo sources.

#3. Bamboo Revolution:

Bamboo Revolution is well-known for its dedication to developing cutting-edge bamboo solutions. As a provider of bamboo textiles, they emphasise fusing performance with sustainability

#4. EcoPlanet Bamboo:

EcoPlanet Bamboo is committed to using sustainable bamboo farming practices to produce textiles. They actively participate in forestry initiatives and concentrate on producing fabrics with as little negative influence on the environment as possible.

#5. BamTex:

BamTex is a reputable bamboo fabric supplier with a wide range of products. Throughout the production process, the company strongly emphasises sustainable methods and quality control. BamTex, which is present all over the world, is now the company that companies choose when looking for premium bamboo textiles. 

End Uses and Applications

Bamboo cloth is shown to be adaptable and suitable for a wide range of uses. Everything from beds and clothes to towels and accessories shows off its versatility. This fabric’s softness and hypoallergenic qualities make it ideal for making baby clothes and towels, which will provide the tiny ones with a cosy and secure experience. Bamboo fabric is thought to be a safe option for newborns. Bamboo fabric’s adaptability to a variety of applications includes the following instances

#1. Bamboo Pillowcases:

Bamboo Pillowcases give more comfort while you are sleeping Soft and hypoallergenic, bamboo pillowcases promote a restful night’s sleep.

Bamboo pillow case bamboo

#2. Bamboo Curtains:

Bamboo Curtains give more beautiful natural roller blinds sustainable and stylish, bamboo curtains add a natural touch to home decor are also breathable, protect from the sun and do not let the insets inside.

curtains bamboo fabric

#3. Bamboo Scarves:

The classic use of a scarf is as a neck wrap. Lightweight and stylish, bamboo scarves add a touch of elegance to any outfit—an eco-friendly alternative to traditional paper wrapping.

Bamboo scarves

#4. Bamboo Face Masks:

Face masks with floral or nature-inspired prints provide a fresh and vibrant look, bringing a touch of the outdoors to daily wear. Bamboo is Eco-friendly and comfortable, bamboo fabric is used for breathable face masks.

Bamboo Face mask

#5. Bamboo Yoga Apparel:

Yoga wear made from bamboo fabric offers comfort and breathability during workouts.

#6. Flowy Bamboo Yoga Dresses:

 For a unique and comfortable yoga experience, bamboo yoga dresses provide a flowy and breathable option suitable for gentle practices.

yoga Apparel Bamboo

FAQs About Bamboo Fabric

Is fabric made of bamboo fabric toxic?

No, bamboo fabric isn’t usually thought to be hazardous. Reputable producers follow stringent guidelines to guarantee the finished product’s safety, and converting bamboo into fabric requires mechanical or chemical processes.

Does fabric made of bamboo shrink?

If the bamboo cloth is not properly cared for, it will shrink. It is advised to adhere to the manufacturer’s care instructions in order to reduce shrinkage. These instructions typically call for washing in cold water, letting the item air dry, or using a low heat setting.

Does bamboo clothing breathe?

Yes, the breathability of bamboo fabric is well known. Since the natural fabrics allow air to flow, it’s a good option for clothes, particularly in the summer. By wicking away moisture, it can keep the wearer comfortable and cool.

Is fabric made of bamboo sustainable?

Bamboo fabric is regarded as a sustainable option, indeed. Bamboo grows quickly and doesn’t need a lot of water or pesticides. It’s also environmentally friendly because it regenerates swiftly. However, depending on the manufacturing processes they employ, the sustainability may differ.

Is bamboo cloth suitable for sublimation?

In general, bamboo fabric works well for sublimation printing. Because of the fabric’s porosity, printing results are vivid and of excellent quality. When in doubt, get precise instructions from the fabric maker on sublimating bamboo fabric.

Can bamboo fabric be dyed by hand?

You can tie-dye bamboo fabric, yes. Because of its smooth texture and natural fibres, this fabric is ideal for a variety of colouring processes. For optimal results, make sure you adhere to the recommended dyeing techniques.

How is cloth manufactured from bamboo?

Harvesting bamboo, removing cellulose, and pulping it are the steps in the process. After that, this pulp is treated chemically or mechanically to produce bamboo fibres. The smooth and luxurious bamboo fabric is created by spinning these fibres into yarn, weaving them into fabric, and then brushing them.

How can stains be removed from bamboo fabric?

Stains on bamboo cloth should be treated as soon as possible to ensure stain eradication. Using a fresh cloth, gently dab the spot, and then use a light detergent or stain remover. Avoid using harsh chemicals and adhere to the manufacturer’s care instructions.

Are babies safe to wear bamboo fabric?

In general, bamboo cloth is safe for infants. Because of its hypoallergenic qualities, breathability, and softness, it’s a popular material for infant clothes. Select bamboo cloth items only that have been certified and meet safety criteria.

What is bamboo viscose fabric?

A sort of bamboo fabric called bamboo viscose is made by chemically extracting cellulose from bamboo pulp. It is frequently used in beds, clothes, and other textiles and is renowned for its velvety texture.

How often does bamboo fabric come in?

In the context of bamboo cloth, the term “frequency” is ambiguous. It is advised to ask for clarification or to state the intended meaning when referring to a particular attribute or quality.

What are the benefits of bamboo fabric?

Softness, breathability, moisture-wicking, antibacterial qualities, and sustainability are some benefits of bamboo cloth. It is also renowned for being hypoallergenic and appropriate for a range of uses, including household textiles and apparel.

Can a custom design be made for bamboo fabric?

Yes, unique designs are possible with bamboo cloth. Bamboo fabric can be worked with by manufacturers and designers to produce unique prints, patterns, or designs in accordance with particular needs or tastes.

Is a sustainable method for producing bamboo?

Yes, because of its quick growth and low resource requirements, bamboo is naturally environmentally beneficial. However, the techniques of production can have an impact on the level of eco-friendliness. Seek out bamboo fabric that has been labelled as organic or made with eco-friendly practices.

Does bamboo fabric shrink more easily than other types of fabric?

If the bamboo cloth is not properly cared for, it may shrink. Shrinkage can be reduced by adhering to the care recommendations, which include using a low-heat setting or washing in cold water and letting it air dry.

Is bamboo fabric safe for babies?

Generally, yes, bamboo fabric can be safe for babies. It’s soft, breathable, and naturally antibacterial, making it a comfortable and potentially hypoallergenic option. However, some factors to consider:

 Which type of bamboo fabric is best for babies?

Look for organic bamboo viscose certified by OEKO-TEX Standard 100 to ensure no harmful chemicals are used in production. Avoid unbranded or uncertified bamboo as it might contain residues.

Can you sublimate on bamboo fabric?

Yes, but with a twist Regular polyester sublimation techniques won’t work optimally on pure bamboo fabric. It needs a special pre-treatment or coating to bind the ink effectively. This can be done commercially or with specialized kits for at-home sublimation.

Can you tie-dye bamboo fabric?

Absolutely Bamboo fabric takes beautifully to tie-dyeing, offering vibrant results similar to cotton. Use high-quality fibre reactive dyes for best colourfastness and follow the dye manufacturer’s instructions carefully. Experiment with different folding techniques and dye combinations to create unique and personalized designs.

How is bamboo made into fabric?

Bamboo fabric can be made through two main methods:
Mechanical process: This eco-friendly approach involves crushing and spinning bamboo fibres into yarn without using harsh chemicals.
Viscose process: This more common method involves dissolving bamboo cellulose into a solution and then regenerating it into fibres. While it requires chemicals, it’s still considered semi-synthetic as the material originates from bamboo.

How to get stains out of bamboo fabric?

Act quickly The sooner you treat a stain, the easier it is to remove. Here are some general tips:
Blot up excess liquid with a clean absorbent cloth. Avoid rubbing, as this can spread the stain.
Pre-treat the stain with a gentle stain remover suitable for delicate fabrics.
Wash the garment according to the care label instructions, usually on a cold gentle cycle.
Air dry or tumble dry on low heat. For stubborn stains, consult a professional cleaner.

Myth: The fabric of bamboo is scratchy and coarse.
Fact: The smooth smoothness and softness of bamboo fabric are well-known. It is a pleasant option for clothes and bedding because it is soft against the skin.


Myth: Organic Bamboo Fabric Is Always Used.
Fact: Not all bamboo fabric is certified organic, despite the fact that bamboo is a fast-growing plant that frequently requires little in the way of pesticides. It is imperative to verify certificates when searching for bamboo textiles that are organic.


Myth: Only green bamboo fabric is available.
Fact: Green isn’t the only colour bamboo fabric comes in. There are other hues as well. Bamboo fibres have a light yellow natural colour, but they can be dyed in a variety of colours to create a variety of fabrics.


Myth: The Upkeep of Bamboo Fabric.
Fact: Fabric made of bamboo is usually easy to maintain. A lot of bamboo clothing is machine-washable, and the fabric’s antibacterial qualities can lessen the frequency of washing.


Myth: The only cloth available is green bamboo.
Fact: Bamboo cloth is available in many colours other than just green. There are further colours. Although the natural hue of bamboo fibres is a bright yellow, they can be dyed to create a wide range of garments.


Myth: Is maintaining a Bamboo Fabric is expensive?.
Fact: Bamboo fabrics are often low maintenance. Many bamboo clothing items may be washed in a machine, and the antibacterial properties of the fabric may reduce the need for frequent washings.


Myth: The cost of bamboo fabric is high.
Fact: The cost-effectiveness of bamboo cloth is contingent upon various aspects, including the manufacturing process and supplementary certifications.


Myth: All bamboo fabrics are created equal.
Fact: The truth is that there are various kinds of bamboo fabrics, including blends, viscose, and lyocells. Since every type has distinct qualities, it is important to know the particular fabric while making a purchase.


Myth: Bamboo Fabric Causes Deforestation.
Fact: Bamboo is a fast-growing grass that doesn’t require replanting after harvesting. Bamboo forests can be sustainably managed, making bamboo fabric production less harmful to ecosystems.


Myth: Bamboo Fabric is only suitable for Warm Climates.
Fact: Bamboo fabric has thermo-regulating properties, making it suitable for various climates. It can keep you cool in hot weather and warm in cooler temperatures.

Myth: Bamboo jersey is naturally wrinkle-free.
Fact: While it wrinkles less than some fabrics, it’s not completely wrinkle-resistant. Blends with synthetic fibers offer enhanced wrinkle resistance.

Myth: Rayon isn’t as sustainable as bamboo fabric.
Fact: Bamboo rayon can be a sustainable option if made from responsibly sourced bamboo and processed with closed-loop systems.

Myth: Spandex makes bamboo fabric less breathable.
Fact: The amount of spandex affects breathability. Choose blends with low spandex content for optimal ventilation.

Myth: Bamboo fabric has no downsides.
Fact: It can be prone to pilling, shrink more than some fabrics, and be a bit more expensive than cotton.

Myth: Wholesale means lower quality.
Fact: Reputable wholesale suppliers offer high-quality fabrics at competitive prices.

Myth: It’s scratchy and uncomfortable.
Fact: Bamboo knits are usually incredibly soft and smooth against the skin.

Myth: It’s only good for loungewear.
Fact: Bamboo jersey can be used for various garments, from activewear to dresses.

Myth: Charcoal adds natural antibacterial properties.
Fact: The evidence for this is inconclusive. Choose certified products for potential antimicrobial benefits.

Myth: Rayon from bamboo is always sustainable.
Fact: Processing methods and chemical use vary greatly. Look for certifications and transparent manufacturing practices.

Conclusion

In conclusion, bamboo cloth shows up in the textile market as a cosy and bamboo fabric- sustainable option. Its versatility is highlighted by its manufacturing method, commercial applications, and dispelling myths. Bamboo fabric is leading the fashion and textile industry’s green revolution as more firms use it and customers look for environmentally friendly substitutes.

Read also

What is Brocade Fabric?

What is the Baize Fabric Guide? 

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here